The essence of electrochemical activation technology

Electrochemical activation is a technology to produce meta-stable substances using unipolar (anodic or cathodic) electrochemical exposure for further usage of these substances in various technological processes while they still maintain physical-chemical and catalytic overactivity.

As a physico-chemical process, electrochemical activation is a combination of electrochemical and electrophysical actions (performed in conditions of minimal heat evolution) on liquid (mostly on water) containing ions and molecules of substances dissolved in it, in the area of spatial charge near the electrochemical system electrode (either anode, or cathode) surface during non-equilibribrium transfer of charge by electrons through the border "electrode - electrolyte".

As a result of electrochemical activation, water becomes meta-stable (activated) demonstrating for a few dozen hours an increased reactivity in various physical and chemical processes. Water activated by cathode (catholyte) acquires such characteristic as superactivity of electrons and a well-pronounced reductant quality. Correspondingly, water activated by anode (anolyte) is characterized by inhibited electron activity and manifests qualities as an oxidant.

Electrochemical activation makes it possible to purposefully change dissolved gases composition, acid-base and oxidative-reductive properties of water in wider limits than under equivalent chemical regulation, allows to synthesize meta-stable chemical reagents (oxidants or reductants) from water and substances dissolved in it. It is used in the processes of water purification and decontamination, as well as for transforming water or diluted electrolyte solutions into environmentally friendly anti-microbial, washing, extractive and other functionally useful solutions, including therapeutic.

Differences between physical-chemical properties of activated and non-activated solutions are illustrated by the results of studying the correlation between the degree of deviation of activated solution physical-chemical parameters from the equilibrium state, and intensity and deepness of electrochemical solution, as well as source solution mineralization.

Diagram of studying the effect of electrochemical action nonequilibrium factor on physico-chemical parameters of activated solutions

Diagram of studying the effect of electrochemical action

Initial parameters of NaCl solution:

рН = 7,02; ORP (j ) = +270 mV; NaCl content in distilled water 0,25 g/l

Parameters of anolyte and catholyte produced with similar specific power consumption under synthesis conditions close to and distant from equilibrium

 

Anolyte and catholyte production conditions

Anolyte рН level рН units

Catholyte рН level, рН units

Anolyte ORP (j),
mV

Catholyte ORP (j),
mV

I = 0,1 А; t = 2000 c;

U = 1,5 В; N = 30 Вт

3,6

11,0

+ 470

+ 50

I = 10 А; t = 20 с;

U = 15 В; N = 300 Вт

3,1

11,5

+ 1010

- 550

m = qxQ , where Q = Ixt ;

q = M/nF

Wm = IxUxt , where U = Udec + Upol + IxR

Symbols:

I – current strength, А; t - time, s; Q – specific power quantity, C/l; U – voltage, V; N – power, Wt; j - oxidative-reductive potential, mV; рН – hydrogen index, рН units; Udec - voltage of decomposition, V; Upol - voltage of polarization, V; R – electric resistance of electrolyte, ohm; q – electrochemical equivalent, g/C; F – Faraday constant, C/g·equiv; m – mass, g.; M – molecular weight, g.; n – number of electrons; Wm - energy, Wt·s; RPE - flow-through electrochemical reactor.

One of the reactors of experimental device

One of the reactors of experimental device