British patent GB 2 257 982. Filed 24.07.1991, published 27.01.1993. The patent’s authors are indicated in conformity with the Decision of the British Patent Bureau of January 13, 2000.
V.M. Bakhir, Y.G. Zadorozhny.
The given invention is the first version of the technological water purification process in EMERALD device. The process of purification included consecutive stages of treating water flow in a system composed of one electrochemical module – FEM-1, or a unit made up of such modules – RPE reactor, with the purpose of its final purification. Source water was supplied to the anodic chamber of the reactor, and flowing through it became more acid and saturated with oxidants – products of water anodic decomposition, the main active substances of which are ozone, hydroperoxide and peroxide compounds, hypochlorous acid and other meta-stable chlorine-oxygen compounds. Time of water presence in the anodic chambers of EMERALD devices does not exceed one – two seconds, however, at 0.5-1.0 A current, this is sufficient for destruction of practically all microorganisms (including spores), harmful organic compounds and microbial toxins. Then water entered catalytic reactor filled with dense granules of carbon (graphite). Here occurred catalytic destruction of chlorine-oxygen compounds synthesized in water in the anodic chamber with generation of active oxygen forms. The conclusive stage of EMERALD technological process was electrochemical cathode treatment in reactor to bring water рН value back to neutral and convert heavy metal ions into insoluble hydroxides with the purpose of their subsequent removal through filtering or precipitation.
Regarding this patent, as was the case with the above-indicated British Patent GB 2 253 860А, in January 2000 the British Patent Bureau issued a decision to change the list of authors and to indicate only the true authors of the invention – V.M. Bakhir and Yu.G. Zadorozhny.
After other technological processes of water purification had been developed, the authors decided to give the common name of EMERALD to all water purification devices supplied with electrochemical reactors made up of FEM modules, and distinguish them by the names of the corresponding technological water purification processes: EMERALD, SAPPHIRE, CRYSTAL, RUBY, AQUAMARINE, AMBER, QUARTZ, BERYL, TOPAZ and others.